Business litigation often involves both contract and tort claims. A fraud or negligence claim that is deemed “duplicative” of a breach of contract claim, however, will be dismissed. When is that the case? The Westchester Commercial Division and the Appellate Division, Second Department recently answered this question in Oceanview Associates, LLC v. HLS Builders Corp.,

Ordinarily in real estate sales, the seller’s pre-closing representations do not survive the closing unless the contract expressly states that they do. The situation is different, however, when the seller has made a pre-closing representation about a then-existing fact, like whether the tenants are current in rent. That was the state of facts alleged by